You are at the section Science and Tech Birthdays a2z
Last Updated 11-30-2018
-- b.12/9/1868 d.1/29/1934 (65)Chemist, Inventor, Physicist, GermanMisc: Ammonia synthesizing
-- b.5/15/1913 d.2/13/1990 (76)Physicist, German
-- b.12/8/1865 d.10/17/1963 (97)Mathematician, FrenchMisc: Number theorist
-- b.8/29/1959 N.S.Astronaut, CanadianMisc: the first Canadian to walk in space
-- b.4/16/1682 J-LD d.2/14/1744 J-LD (61)Inventor, Mathematician, EnglishMisc: the first reflecting telescope
-- b.2/16/1834 d.8/9/1919 (85)Scientist, Zoologist, German
-- b.3/8/1879 d.7/28/1968 (89)Chemist, Physicist, GermanMisc: radioactivity (nuclear fission) co-discoverer
-- b.4/10/1755 d.7/2/1843 (88)Physician, GermanMisc: homeopathy founder
Fred W. Haise
-- b.11/14/1933Astronaut, EngineerMisc: Apollo 13
-- b.8/9/1932 d.12/5/1980 (48)Writer, Cardiologist
J. B. S. Haldane
-- b.11/5/1892 d.12/1/1964 (72)Author, Scientist, British
Clara McBride Hale
-- b.4/1/1905 d.12/18/1992 (87)Nurse, PhilanthropistNames/Places: NN:Mother HaleMisc: founded the Hale House in Harlem
-- b.6/29/1868 d.2/21/1938 (69)AstronomerMisc: founder of the Yerkes and Mount Palomar observatories
-- b.9/7/1677 N.S. or 9/17/1677 O.S. d.1/4/1761Physiologist, Clergyman, English
-- b.8/25/1951Engineer, Rock & Roll Singer, EnglishNames/Places: RN:Robert John Arthur HalfordGroup Names: Judas Priest
-- b.10/15/1829 N.S. d.11/22/1907 N.S. (78)AstronomerMisc: discovered Mars' moons, Phobos and Deimos and calculated their orbits
-- b.5/12/1964Chef, PersonalityTV Shows: The Chew
Charles Martin Hall
-- b.12/6/1863 d.12/27/1914 (51)Chemist, InventorMisc: discovered the electrolytic method of producing aluminum, thus bringing the metal into wide commercial use.
-- b.2/1/1844 d.4/24/1924 (80)Writer, Psychologist, EducatorMisc: founder of Child Psychology
-- b.9/12/1811 d.8/7/1898 (86)Geologist
Sir James Hall
-- b.1/17/1761 d.6/23/1832 (71)Chemist, Geologist, Scotish
-- b.4/12/1724 d.10/19/1790 (66)Revolutionary, Physician, Clergyman, Statesman, GovernorMisc: Declaration of Independence signer
-- b.2/18/1790 d.8/11/1857 (67)Physician, British
-- b.9/16/1981 N.S.Pilot, Australian
Sir Edmund Halley
-- b.10/29/1656 O.S. or 11/8/1656 N.S. d.1/14/1742 (85)Astronomer, Mathematician, EnglishNames/Places: b. in London, EnglandMisc: observed comet named for him in 1682; first to calculate a comet's orbit.
Andrew S. Hallidie
-- b.3/16/1836 d.4/24/1900 (64)InventorMisc: invented the cable car
William Stewart Halsted
-- b.9/23/1852 d.9/7/1922 (69)SurgeonMisc: established the first surgical school in the U.S.
-- b.7/15/1909 d.2/2/1992 (82)SurgeonMisc: Kidney Transplant pioneer
-- b.2/27/1869 d.9/22/1970 (101)Pathologist, Physician
Sir William Rowan Hamilton
-- b.8/4/1805 d.9/2/1865 (60)Mathematician, IrishMisc: Geometrics, Quantum mechanics; born at midnight a minute after 11:59pm Aug 3
-- b.5/21/1898 d.12/10/1990 (92)Art Collector, Doctor, Financier, ManufacturerMisc: Occidental Petroleum chairman; owned a seat on Arm & Hammer board; his name was a pun on the company (he's not M.C.'s dad!)
-- b.5/8/1847 d.8/1/1919 (72)Scientist, Inventor, GermanMisc: Cigar maker, opera impresario & theater builder; Oscar II's granddad
E. Cuyler Hammond
-- b.6/14/1912 d.11/3/1986 (74)ScientistMisc: the first person to link smoking with lung cancer
John Hays Hammond Jr.
-- b.4/13/1888 d.2/12/1965 (76)Engineer, Inventor
-- b.1/11/1895 d.7/1/1973 (78)Engineer, InventorMisc: Electric Organs
-- b.5/8/1786 d.3/26/1865 (78)Inventor, Merchant, EnglishMisc: rubber patents, founded a British rubber industry
-- b.11/4/1916 d.4/27/2002 (85)InventorMisc: the Barbie Doll, her son's name was Ken, and her daughter's name was Barbara
-- b.10/26/1803 d.6/29/1882 (78)Architect, InventorMisc: Patent Safety Cab [2-wheeled, horse-driven cab with the driver seated above and behind the passengers]: the Hansom cab
-- b.9/26/1784 N.S. d.4/11/1873 N.S. (88)Astronomer, Physiologist, NorweiganMisc: noted for his research in geomagnetism.
-- b.1/14/1890 d.8/8/1983 (93)Scientist, InventorMisc: the Drunkometer
-- b.1/29/1850 d.7/6/1915 (65)Inventor, EnglishMisc: inventor of The Box Kite
-- b.??/??/1720 d.4/22/1778InventorMisc: born in late 1720, baptized Jan 8, 1721
-- b.9/29/1903 d.4/18/1982 (78)Physicist, EducatorMisc: President of the University of Pennsylvania
-- b.2/28/1957 N.S.Chef, TV Host, EnglishTV Shows: "Can't Cook, Won't Cook", Good Morning
-- b.3/5/1824 d.1/31/1884 (59)PhysicianMisc: founded American Public Health Association
-- b.8/18/1927 d.10/25/2001 (74)Anthropologist, HistorianMisc: cultural materialism theoretician
Dr. Thomas Anthony Harris
-- b.4/18/1910 d.5/4/1995 (85)Author, PsychiatristBook Titles: I'm OK, You're OK
-- b.3/24/1693 Ju-1 or 4/3/1693 N.S. d.3/24/1776 N.S. (82)Inventor, EnglishMisc: the chronometer
-- b.12/22/1903 d.3/17/1983 (79)Scientist, Physiologist
-- b.4/1/1578 J-LD d.6/3/1657 J-LD (79)Physician, EnglishMisc: discovered blood circulation & heart function
H. B. Hass
-- b.1/25/1902 d.2/13/1987 (85)Chemist
-- b.1/8/1942 N.S. d.3/14/2018 N.S. (76)Author, Scientist, Theorist, Physicist, Astrophysicist, EnglishMisc: Black Holes & Baby UniversesBook Titles: A Brief History of Time
-- b.12/12/1951 N.S.AstronautMisc: flew on five Space Shuttle missions
Sir Walter Haworth
-- b.3/19/1883 d.3/19/1950 (67)Chemist, British
George Dewey Hay
-- b.11/9/1895 d.5/9/1968 (72)Inventor, AnnouncerMisc: created the Grand Ole Opry; promoter of country music
Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden
-- b.9/7/1829 d.12/22/1887 (58)Geologist
Isaac Israel Hayes
-- b.3/5/1832 d.12/17/1881 (49)ExplorerMisc: Arctic
-- b.10/14/1857 d.4/13/1925 (67)InventorMisc: built one of the first U.S. autos
Dr. John Harlan Haynes Jr.
-- b.4/15/1924 d.9/29/2013 (89)Author, Chef, Italian
Louis Alan Hazeltine
-- b.8/7/1886 d.5/24/1964 (77)Engineer, Inventor, PhysicistMisc: invented the neutrodyne circuit, making commercial radio possible.
-- b.8/7/1783 d.1/18/1861 (77)InventorMisc: lace-making machinery
-- b.5/18/1850 d.2/3/1925 (74)PhysicistMisc: he predicted the existance of the ionosphere, which is used to reflect radio waves
-- b.2/19/1865 d.11/26/1952 (87)Scientist, Explorer, Swedish
Dr. Henry Heimlich
-- b.2/3/1920 d.12/17/2016 N.S. (96)Author, PhysicianNames/Places: son-in-law of Arthur MurrayMisc: developed an anti-choking procedure
Ernst Heinrich Heinkel
-- b.1/24/1888 d.1/30/1958 (70)Inventor, GermanMisc: first rocket-powered aircraft
Karl G. Heinze
-- b.10/17/1926 d.10/5/1993 (66)Astronaut, Astronomer
Werner Karl Heisenberg
-- b.12/5/1901 d.2/1/1976 (74)Philosopher, Physicist, GermanMisc: discovered a way to formulate quantum mechanics in terms of matrices (1925). For that discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for 1932.
Philip S. Hench
-- b.2/28/1896 d.3/30/1965 (69)Scientist, Engineer, Physicist
Donald Ainslie Henderson
-- b.9/7/1928 N.S. d.8/19/2016 N.S. (87)Physician, EducatorMisc: Epidemiologist; helped eradicate smallpox throughout the world from 1967-1977
-- b.6/9/1822 d.1/17/1890 (67)Scientist, American, ScotishNames/Places: NN: The Father of American Horticulture
-- b.4/20/1735 d.1/30/1785 (49)Pioneer, Jurist, Colonist, MerchantMisc: attempted to create a colony called Transylvania
-- b.12/17/1797 d.5/13/1878 (80)Inventor, PhysicistMisc: pioneer of electromagnetism
-- b.12/12/1775 d.9/2/1836 (60)Chemist, Physician, EnglishMisc: in 1803, he proposed what is now called Henry's law, which states that the amount of a gas absorbed by a liquid is in proportion to the pressure of the gas above the liquid, provided that no chemical action occurs.
Matthew A. Henson
-- b.8/8/1866 d.3/9/1955 (88)ExplorerMisc: reached North Pole with Peary on 6/4/1909.
-- b.7/10/1917 d.6/12/2007 (89)Author, Scientist, TV/Radio Actor, TV HostTV Shows: Watch Mr. Wizard (star)
-- b.6/26/1866 d.4/5/1923 (56)Scientist, Archaeologist
Carlos "Danny" Herrera
-- b.7/21/1901 N.S. d.5/11/1992 N.S. (90)InventorMisc: Margaritas
James Bryan Herrick
-- b.8/11/1861 d.3/7/1954 (92)PhysicianMisc: the first to observe and describe sickle-cell anemia.
-- b.3/16/1750 N.S. d.1/9/1843 N.S. (92)Astronomer, GermanMisc: the first lady of astronomy; was 98?
Sir John F. W. Herschel
-- b.3/7/1792 d.5/11/1871 (79)Astronomer, EnglishMisc: discovered Uranus, added over 500 nebulae and clusters of stars to those already known.
Sir William Herschel
-- b.11/15/1738 d.8/25/1822 (83)Astronomer, Composer, GermanNames/Places: RN:Friedrich WilhelmMisc: discovered Uranus in 1781
Alfred D. Hershey
-- b.12/4/1908 d.5/22/1997 (88)Scientist, BiologistMisc: who, along with Max Delbruck and Salvador Luria, won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1969. The prize was given for research done on bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).
-- b.4/21/1849 d.10/25/1922 (73)Scientist, GermanMisc: Fertilization; embryologist
-- b.7/22/1887 d.10/30/1975 (88)Physicist, GermanMisc: quantum physicist (Nobel 1925)
-- b.2/22/1857 d.1/1/1894 (36)Physicist, GermanMisc: the first to broadcast and receive radio waves
-- b.12/25/1904 d.3/3/1999 (94)Physicist, Canadian, GermanMisc: winner of the 1971 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work in determining the electronic structure and geometry of molecules, especially free radicals--groups of atoms that contain odd numbers of electrons.
-- b.6/24/1883 d.12/17/1964 (81)Physicist, Austrian
-- b.1/28/1611 N.S. d.1/28/1687 N.S. (76)Astronomer, Polish
-- b.8/1/1885 d.7/5/1966 (80)Chemist, Hungarian
-- b.5/11/1924Scientist, Astronomer, Astrophysicist, EnglishMisc: won a Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery of pulsars.
-- b.10/6/1914 d.4/18/2002 (87)Writer, Anthropologist, Archaeologist, Ethnologist, Explorer, Norweigan
-- b.3/28/1892 d.7/18/1968 (76)Physiologist, Belgiumese
-- b.12/20/1890 d.3/27/1967 (76)Chemist, Czech
-- b.1/23/1862 d.2/14/1943 (81)Mathematician, German
-- b.9/26/1886 d.6/3/1977 (90)Physiologist, Biophysicist, British
George W. Hill
-- b.3/3/1838 d.4/16/1914 (76)AstronomerMisc: Moon Orbit
Sir Rowland Hill
-- b.12/3/1795 d.8/27/1879 (83)Inventor, Educator, EnglishMisc: administrator, originator of the penny postage system, principally known for his development of the modern postal service, which was subsequently adopted throughout the world; introduced first adhesive postage stamp (1840)
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary
-- b.7/20/1919 d.1/11/2008 (88)Explorer, New ZealandMisc: one of the first two men to scale Mt. Everest Mountain on May 29, 1953
-- b.12/26/1954Author, Explorer, Philanthropist, New ZealandMisc: Reached the North Pole with his father Neil Armstrong in 1986
-- b.8/21/1961 N.S. d.11/26/2018 N.S. (57)Animator, Cartoonist, Biologist, DirectorTV Shows: SpongeBob SquarePants (creator), Rocko's Modern Life (director)
-- b.9/28/1943 N.S. d.7/21/2014 N.S. (70)Doctor, Physician, Soccer Figure, ScotishMisc: in the Scottish Football Hall of Fame for being the doctor for the Scotland national football team
Sir Cyril Hinshelwood
-- b.6/19/1897 d.10/9/1967 (70)Scientist, Engineer, Physician, British
Dr. William A. Hinton
-- b.12/15/1883 d.8/7/1959 (75)Scientist, Physician
-- b.??/??/460BC d.??/??/377BCPhysician, Greek
Charles E. Hires
-- b.8/19/1851 d.7/31/1937 (85)Inventor, ManufacturerMisc: root beer; Hires co.
William Maxwell Hitzig
-- b.12/15/1904 d.8/1/1983 (78)Physician, Austrian
-- b.12/20/1896 d.11/1/1977 (80)EngineerMisc: developed the J-57 split-compressor turbojet aircraft engine, the first with 10,000 pounds of thrust
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
-- b.2/5/1914 d.12/20/1998 (84)Scientist, Biophysicist, British
-- b.5/12/1910 d.7/29/1994 (84)Scientist, Chemist, EgyptianMisc: vitamin B-12 research
-- b.8/17/1798 d.4/5/1866 (67)Physician, EnglishMisc: early described (1832) the malignant disease of lymph tissue that bears his name.
-- b.9/12/1812 d.6/7/1886 (73)InventorMisc: developed and manufactured the first successful rotary printing press.
Jacobus Van't Hoff
-- b.8/30/1852 d.3/1/1911 (58)Chemist, Dutch (Netherlands)Misc: a Dutch physical and organic chemist and the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
-- b.1/11/1906 d.4/29/2008 (102)Chemist, India, SwissMisc: discovered the hallucinogenic drug LSD
-- b.6/13/1809 N.S. d.9/20/1894 N.S. (85)Illustrator, Children's Author, Psychiatrist, German
-- b.4/15/1902 d.6/26/1995 (93)EngineerMisc: led U.S. efforts to develop rocket engines for space vehicles.
-- b.4/10/1912 d.11/22/1982 (70)Engineer, Businessperson, Sports FigureMisc: builder of the Houston Astrodome in 1965
-- b.2/5/1915 d.11/17/1990 (75)PhysicistMisc: his popular books on the political, social, and intellectual trends in U.S. history garnered two Pulitzer Prizes.
-- b.7/10/1882 d.8/19/1975 (93)Art Collector, Scientist, PhilanthropistMisc: founded the Houston Symphony
Clifford M. Holland
-- b.3/13/1883 d.10/7/1924 (41)EngineerMisc: Holland subway tunnel
John Philip Holland
-- b.2/24/1841 d.8/12/1914 (73)Engineer, Inventor, IrishMisc: pioneered the modern submarine and the first to be formally commissioned by the U.S. Navy and the first Royal Navy submarine, the Holland 1.; some say b. Feb 24, 1840 but incorrect according to the Christian Brothers' register in Limerick which contains the notation "J.P. Holland....entered June 15, 1858, aged 17."
-- b.8/16/1848 d.12/13/1932 (84)Naturalist
Dr. Herman Hollerith
-- b.2/29/1860 d.11/17/1929 (69)InventorMisc: invented first electric tabulating machine, the punched card.
-- b.7/20/1832 d.1/29/1882 (49)EngineerMisc: Steel Mills
Robert W. Holley
-- b.1/28/1922 d.2/11/1993 (71)Scientist, Biochemist, EducatorMisc: worked with RNA (Nobel 1968)
Holling C. Holling
-- b.8/2/1900 d.9/7/1973 (73)Children's Author, Naturalist
-- b.3/1/1966 N.S.Chef, Panelist, EnglishBook Titles: 100 Great Breads, The Great British Bake Off, How to Bake, Bread, American Baking CompetitionTV Shows: The Great British Bake Off (judge)
Dr. Harry Nicholls Holmes
-- b.7/10/1879 d.7/1/1958 (78)ChemistMisc: crystalized vitamin A
Oliver Wendell Holmes
-- b.8/29/1809 N.S. d.10/7/1894 N.S. (85)Author, Novelist, Poet, Physician, Judge/JuristNames/Places: b. in Cambridge, MA; Old Ironsides
-- b.1/1/1849 d.12/5/1920 (71)InventorMisc: The Tractor
-- b.11/17/1906 d.8/5/1991 (84)Engineer, Executive, Industrialist, Manufacturer, JapaneseMisc: the founder of Honda Motor Company, Ltd
-- b.12/29/1874 d.9/13/1964 (89)Inventor, Businessperson
Sir Joseph Hooker
-- b.6/30/1817 d.12/10/1911 (94)Scientist, Botanist, English
Earnest Albert Hooten
-- b.11/20/1887 d.5/3/1954 (66)Anthropologist, American
Sir Frederick Hopkins
-- b.6/20/1861 d.5/16/1947 (85)Biochemist, English
Grace Murray Hopper
-- b.12/9/1906 d.1/1/1992 (85)Military Leader, Inventor, Mathematician, Computer Software ProgrammerNames/Places: NN:the first Lady of SoftwareMisc: COBOL computer language inventor
-- b.12/4/1860 d.6/5/1946 (85)Inventor, BusinesspersonMisc: invented the first canned ham & chili; Hormel Meat Packing Co. founder
-- b.9/16/1885 d.12/4/1952 (67)Psychiatrist, GermanMisc: neo freudian psycho analyst
-- b.7/3/1776 d.??/??/1849Inventor
Sir Victor Horsley
-- b.4/14/1857 d.7/16/1916 (59)Surgeon, British
-- b.3/4/1965Writer, Novelist, Physician, AfghanistanBook Titles: The Kite Runner, A Thousand Spendid Suns
Eugene J. Houdry
-- b.4/18/1892 d.7/18/1962 (70)Inventor
Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield
-- b.8/28/1919 d.8/12/2004 (84)Scientist, Engineer, EnglishMisc: CATscan developer
Edwin James Houston
-- b.7/9/1847 d.3/1/1914 (66)EngineerMisc: electrical engineer who influenced the development of commercial lighting in the United States.
-- b.7/9/1819 d.10/3/1867 (48)InventorNames/Places: b. in Spencer, MAMisc: The Sewing Machine
-- b.7/20/1793 d.9/10/1876 (83)InventorMisc: sewing machine
Sir Fred Hoyle
-- b.6/24/1915 d.8/20/2001 (86)Author, Astronomer, Cosmologist, EnglishMisc: proposed the steady-state universe theory.
L. Ron Hubbard
-- b.3/13/1911 d.1/24/1986 (74)Artist, Author, Scriptwriter, Philosopher, Explorer, Educator, Humanitarian, ComposerNames/Places: RFMN:Lafayette RonaldMisc: Administrator; Church of Scientology scientologist founderBook Titles: Dianetics (Read it!)
Edwin Powell Hubble
-- b.11/20/1889 d.9/28/1953 (63)AstronomerNames/Places: b. in Marshfield, MOMisc: discoverer of galaxies
David Hunter Hubel
-- b.2/27/1926 d.9/22/2013 (87)Scientist, Canadian
-- b.2/20/1937Biochemist, German
-- b.4/15/1856 d.3/12/1928 (71)Inventor, BusinesspersonMisc: founded Everready Flashlight Co.
-- b.9/12/1575 J-LD d.6/22/1611 J-LD (35)Navigator, BritishMisc: Named a river & a bay after him
William Henry Hudson
-- b.8/4/1841 d.8/18/1922 (81)Author, Naturalist, Argentine
Charles B. Huggins
-- b.9/22/1901 d.1/12/1997 (95)Surgeon, CanadianMisc: cancer researcher
Sir William Huggins
-- b.2/7/1824 d.5/12/1910 (86)Scientist, Astronomer, EnglishMisc: discovered nature of spiral "nebulae"; one of the first to use the spectroscope; with it he revolutionized the observation of celestial bodies; discoverer of stellar nature of Andromeda
David Edward Hughes
-- b.5/16/1831 d.1/22/1900 (68)Inventor, Professor, BritishMisc: famed for the Printing Telegraph & Microphone
Howard Robard Hughes
-- b.12/24/1905 d.4/5/1976 (72)Aviator, Industrialist, Zillionaire, Movie ProducerNames/Places: b. in Houston, TX; d. in HoustonMisc: Pilot Of The Spruce Goose, reclusive billionaire, moviemaker, plane builder
-- b.6/17/1751 d.1/12/1838 (86)PioneerNames/Places: NN: The Father of the American NavyMisc: Shipbuilder of the Constitution frigate
-- b.8/26/1886 d.9/10/1984 (98)Aeronautical, EngineerMisc: he made major innovations in the design of lighter-than-air ships, seaplanes, and carrier-based aircraft.
-- b.9/22/1961Nurse, Actress, Comedienne, TV Talk Show Hostess, Cartoon Voice Actress, ProducerMisc: some say b. 1960 or 1961TV Shows: Davis Rules, The Building, The Bonnie Hunt Show (sitcom as Bonnie Kelly), Life with Bonnie (as Bonnie Molloy), The Bonnie Hunt Show (talk show as hostess)Movie Titles: Return to Me, Cars, Jumanji, Jerry Maguire, The Green Mile, Cheaper By The Dozen (series)
-- b.7/29/1796 d.6/8/1859 (62)InventorMisc: Safety Pin, Fountain Pen, Coal Stove
-- b.9/16/1876 d.10/17/1947 (71)GeographerMisc: explored the influence of climate on civilization.
-- b.6/4/1704 d.6/20/1776 (72)Inventor, EnglishMisc: inventor and manufacturer of cast or crucible steel.
Zora Neale Hurston
-- b.1/7/1891 d.1/28/1960 (69)Author, Short Story Writer, AnthropologistMisc: Folklorist
-- b.10/7/1790 d.8/4/1860 (69)Inventor
-- b.8/10/1862 d.10/28/1926 (64)AstronomerMisc: most famous for the discovery and study of close binary stars.
-- b.6/3/1726 N.S. d.3/26/1797 N.S. (70)Geologist, Scotish
Andrew Fielding Huxley
-- b.11/22/1917 d.5/30/2012 (94)Physiologist, English
Sir Julian S. Huxley
-- b.6/22/1887 d.2/14/1975 (87)Author, Philosopher, Scientist, Biologist, English
Thomas Henry Huxley
-- b.5/4/1825 d.6/29/1895 (70)Author, Philosopher, Biologist, Educator, EnglishNames/Places: NN:T.H.Misc: whose speculations on philosophy and religion and whose promotion of Darwinism led him to an advocacy of agnosticism.
-- b.4/14/1629 d.7/8/1695 (66)Astronomer, Mathematician, Physicist, Dutch (Netherlands)Misc: Saturn's Rings and Titan discoverer; founder of the wave theory of light; or d. Jul 8?
-- b.4/5/1838 d.1/15/1902 (63)Scientist, Palentologist, Zoologist
John Wesley Hyatt
-- b.11/28/1837 d.5/10/1920 (82)InventorMisc: patented celluloid, 1st practical synthetic material